Recently, new approaches have emerged such as the constructivist approach, that are as follows.  One component of the "Contructivist" learning model stresses for one to allow for "individual difference," and "cultural diversity."  This is in opposition to the "Transmission" model or "mastery skills model," (Au, 1993, p.48) (show overhead other side). 

(Addition to "Hands Off Theory" Presentation, D. Bolima)

Differences Between Instructional Models 

 Constructivist models:

1.Learners actively construct their own understandings

2.Teaching proceeds from the whole to the part

3.Literacy is embedded in social contexts.

4.Students are encouraged to explore  the functions of literacy or the relationship of skills to these functions.

5.Instruction is student centered; individual differences are taken into account

6.Instruction emphasizes the processes of thinking; recognizes the place of students' life experiences
and cultural schemata.

7.Instruction allows for cultural diversity.


 Transmission models:

 1.Skills and knowledge can be transmitted or passively absorbed.

 2.Teaching proceeds from the part to the whole.

 3.Literacy is taught as skills in the abstract, without regard  for social context.

 4.Little or no emphasis is placed on the functions of literacy .

 5.Instruction is skills-driven; little emphasis is given to individual or group differences.

 6.Instruction focuses on product; little recognition given to students' life experiences and cultural schemata.

 7.Instruction may reflect the values of the mainstream, to the exclusion of other cultures.

*Although the system has been slowly changing, we still have teachers that use one or the other or both.  The interesting point is the idea that there is power in individual perception.