subject. The term subject denotes a fundamental human mental activity of interacting with things in the world by opposing them to one's own consciousness, as in the philosophical (epistemological) distinction between subject and object. However, by the 1970s French post-structuralists, including such divergent thinkers as Louis Althusser, Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Julia Kristeva, and Jacques Lacan, had from varying but intertwining perspectives all proposed that the traditional philosophical conception of the subject is misleading in important respects. Against the strong Cartesian tradition in French intellectual history, they argued in different ways that the self-awareness of human subjectivity is founded on a central misrecognition by the subject—or self, or ego—that it is somehow central to the processes of knowing the world. In general, these post-structuralists at that time argued that the subject's knowledge of world and self is shaped by discourse. Ultimately this could be to say that human subjectivity finds itself through a discursive universe which produces and reproduces that subjectivity and, often enough, its constitutive illusions. (from: Rosen 1986).