popular texts. "In popular culture the text is a cultural resource to be plundered or used in ways that are determined by the social interests of the reader/user not by the structure of the text itself, nor by the intentions (however we may discern them) of its author. Indeed, the text typically originates from a social position that differs markedly from that of its popular readers/users. [...] Analyzing texts that have been made popular involves, then, searching for their contradictions, their rough edges that have not been authorially smoothed out into organic coherence, for these abrasive bits that open a text up to popular uses, and enable it to be seen not as a complete and unified whole, but as a terrain upon which people can engage in the struggle for meanings. In popular culture the text is not an object of reverence to be understood in all its coherence and completeness, but a resource to be used. Indeed, the text that is made into popular culture is always incomplete until it is used, it remains at the level of cultural potential until it is selectively taken up and inserted into the social circulation of meanings. [...] The meanings that are made at the point of intersection of the text and the social position of the reader cannot then be determined by, nor even analytically predicted from, the structure of the text alone. At least an equal participant in the negotiation of meaning is the relevance of the text to the reader, and relevance is produced by the social interests of the reader not by the text or its author. In studying popular culture the textual analyst, then, has to identify the different lines of force in a text and to trace how those which promote the interests of the socially dominant may be contradicted by others. The textual analyst must also be a social analyst, for he or she must be able to speculate in a disciplined manner how different elements in the text may be taken up by differently situated readers. This is the analysis of potential rather than of a completed art object." (from: Fiske, "Popular Cuture")// see: reading