montage. A term used especially in connection with MODERNISM to refer to the newer techniques of artistic composition and editing which combined disparate images, image and text, or different media in the making of a new work. In general terms it is often used synonymously with 'collage' and bricolage. A more specific association is suggested by the meaning of the term in German to refer to the technology of the assembly line introduced in this same period. Its use in relation to artistic practice was therefore a way of declaring a positive connection between art and industry and the mass production techniques of the modern world. Its main association was accordingly with the use of the new technologies of photography and cinema and the development in the European avant-garde of the 1910s—1930s of the techniques of photomontage and film composition. The leading proponents of montage in these fields were the Soviet Constructivists, El Lissitsky, Alexander Rodchenko, and the film makers Dziga Vertov and Sergei Eisenstein (who first theorised its use in cinema) and the Berlin Dadaists George Grosz, Hannah Hoch, and, above all, John Heartfield (Willett 1978; Ades 1986). According to the Soviet critic Sergei Tretiakov, photomontage begins whenever there is a conscious alteration of the obvious first sense of a photograph by combining two or more images, by joining drawing and graphic shapes to the photograph, by adding a significant spot of colour, or by adding a written text. All of these techniques serve to divert the photography from what it 'naturally' seems to say, and to underscore the need for the viewer's active 'reading' of the image. (Teitelbaum [ed.] 1992: 28) As such, montage proved a major device in effecting the modernist aim of estrangement or defamiliarization. At the same time it had been used for the purposes of comedy and caricature in popular and professional photography from at least the mid-nineteenth century and to shock and surprise in the new commercial advertising and newspaper composition at the turn of the century. This emphasized the connection with the modern world and with urban life in the metropolis, but was a sign too of how the technique could be compromised. [from Brooker, 1999]