interpretation. In English, "interpret" has most often meant, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "to expound the meaning of (something abstruse or mysterious); to render (words, writings, an author) clear or explicit; to elucidate; to explain." But an earlier sense of the verb was "to translate," and so "interpretation" is also "the act of translating; a translation or rendering of a book, word, etc." (OED). The word "interpretation" itself derives from the Latin, interpretatio, meaning not only "the action of expounding, explaining" but also "a translation, a rendering." In Latin rhetoric, interpretatio referred to "the explanation of one word by another, the use of synonyms." Interpretatio was formed on interpres: "an intermediary, agent, go-between" and "an interpreter of foreign languages, a translator" (Glare 1982, 947). In its etymology, then, "interpretation" conveys the sense of a translation pointed in two directions simultaneously: toward a text, or work, to be interpreted and for an audience in need of the interpretation. That is, the interpreter mediates between the translated text and its new rendering and between the translated text and the audience desiring the translation. Scholars and critics have long argued about specific interpretations, but more recently the focus of dispute has shifted to the nature of interpretation itself (see also: reading; text; hermeneutics; deconstruction; second-order observation). [Bordwell on Film Interpretation]