Frankfurt School. The School was established as the Institute for Social Research at the University of Frankfurt in 1923, resettled in New York in the 1930s and returned to Frankfurt in 1950. Its leading members were Theodor Adorno (1903-69), Max Horkheimer, Leo Lowenthal, and Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979). Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) also contributed to the Institute's Journal for Social Research. The School was indebted throughout to Marxist theory but adopted a less class-based model in its work on fascism and contemporary mass society in the 1930s and 1940s. This distinguished it from the political inflection of some of Benjamin's writing, conceived in what Adorno thought to be too close an affinity with the political asesthetic of Bertolt Brecht. The school's major work is probably Adorno and Horkheimer's The Dialectic of Enlightenment (1979) first published in 1947, a critique of Enlightenment rationalism which is seen as complicit with totalitarianism and the 'administered' societies of late capitalism. This work contained the much reprinted joint study, 'The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception', an unrelenting denunciation of what were perceived as the conformist banalities of a manipulative mass culture. This has remained a key point of reference in subsequent debates. At his most challenging Adorno maintained a scrupulously dialectical analysis of the contradictions of contemporary society, but while in this respect indebted to Marxism, he looked to the strenuous formal difficulty and autonomy of modern literature and music (Beckett, Schoenberg) for a countervailing sensibility to capitalism rather than to the traditional agency of the organized working class. The culture industries, in particular, he and others of the School saw as eroding political consciousness and as threatening to absorb all but the most uncompromising of 'authentic' art. Herbert Marcuse shared this position but adapted to American society more easily than other members of the School. His later works, Eros and Civilisation (1955), One Dimensional Man (1964), in which he sought a rapprochement between Marxism and psychoanalysis, became key texts for the counterculture of the 1960s. Marcuse saw students and other contemporary protest movements as part of a new political configuration and introduced a utopian note quite at odds with Adorno's pessimism. His The Aesthetic Dimension (1978) similarly attributed an 'affirmative' critical role to art, though in terms other than those of orthodox Marxism. Critical theory has exercised a wide influence upon subsequent social and cultural theory, including the work in Germany of JŸrgen Habermas. Habermas would reject the association of rationality with totalitarianism or managerial capitalism of the kind made by Adorno and Horkheimer, and many have found their condemnation of a commercialized mass art simplistic and unhelpful. However, others have been convinced by the apparent neutralization of critique and of class struggle in the postmodern era of the appropriateness of Adorno's analysis.