culture industry. A term coined by the Marxist philosopher Theodor Adorno and used to refer to commercially and state-owned organizations in the arts and media, committed to the production, sponsorship, display and distribution of cultural goods and services. These can range from exhibitions, sports events, books, newspapers and associated kinds of journalism, film, video and TV production, and all kinds of musical production from opera to pop. The recent histories of the major culture industries (especially the communications and entertainment industries) show an increasing commercialization, concentration of ownership and use of expanded world markets for the purposes of wider distribution and increased profit. What distinguishes the culture industries in this general picture of multinational and global capitalism is the nature of their product and its role in shaping attitudes and ideologies. Hence the description sometimes employed of 'consciousness industries' (Enzensberger). In one main tradition of analysis associated with the so-called Frankfurt School, the forms and effects of mass culture are seen to serve the ends of commodification and to duplicate the social relations of capitalism in the realm of ideology. The culture industries are therefore seen as manipulative and their audiences as passive consumers. They are then contrasted in both respects with the non-commercial forms of so-called authentic art, thought of as a product of the lone artist of integrity. A perceived standardization of product and effect is therefore opposed to the supposed autonomy, originality and critical force of art. This opposition is also often repeated in distinctions of value and quality made within mass culture itself, between the 'serious' novel and popular fiction; the novel and soap opera; or the art film and Hollywood blockbuster, even where it is recognized by critics and professionals alike that these forms are similarly commercially produced for specific markets. Along these lines, the debate about the culture industries becomes difficult to disengage from debates about high and low culture which have shaped cultural analysis as a whole.